What is the Law regarding rabies vaccination?

 

See this link for rabies verification laws:
CHAPTER 420-4-2 RABIES VACCINATION VERIFICATION PROGRAM

The section requiring vaccination of the rabies code derives it's authority from the Code of Alabama, specifically:

Abating Nuisances. The Code of Alabama 1975 gives municipalities broad authority “to
abate all nuisances and to assess the cost against the person” responsible for them. Towns
and cities may pass ordinances against unvaccinated or loose animals (Section 11-47-110;
see also information under Title 3 ), weeds growing on neglected or abandoned property
(Section 11-47-140), or junk collections that fall outside the parameters allowed for licensed
junkyards (Sections 23-1-240 through -251). The municipality’s power to issue fines and
rescind licenses provides leverage in eliminating noisy, offensive, or dangerous activity at
“ honky tonks” and similar establishments. If a nuisance violation remains uncorrected, the
town or city may take action in the courts.

Specifically:

14.01 Animal Control Operations Files (Rabies Immunization Certificates;
Reports of Operations; Lists of Animals Impounded, Claimed, Adopted,
or Executed). These records document general operations of the
municipal animal control department, including licensing and vaccinating
pet animals and retrieving, housing, and executing strays.
(Code of Alabama 1975, Section 3-7A- 2).
Note: For routine animal control operations records (accounting and
purchasing records; service contracts; personnel and training records; work
orders, operations logs, telephone/radio logs; maintenance data on equipment
and facilities; correspondence with pet owners or complaining
citizens), follow the disposition statements for such records in the “Administering
Internal Operations” subfunctions (no.’s 17-20).

 

ALABAMA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH ALABAMA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH

DIVISION OF DISEASE CONTROL ADMINISTRATIVE CODE

CHAPTER 420-4-4 RABIES CONTROL PROGRAM

TABLE OF CONTENTS

420-4-4-.01 Purpose

420-4-4-.02 Definitions

420-4-4-.03 Nuisance Menacing Public Health

420-4-4-.04 Reporting Of Exposures

420-4-4-.05 Investigation Of Reports

420-4-4-.06 Evidence Of Immunization

420-4-4-.07 Extra-Label Use Of Animal Antirabies Vaccines

420-4-4-.08 Exceptions To Veterinary Confinement & Quarantine

420-4-4-.09 Adoption Of National Compendium

420-4-4-.01 Purpose. The purpose of these rules is to provide administrative details and clarify procedures for the prevention and control of rabies.

Author: William B. Johnston, D.V.M.

Statutory Authority: Code of Ala. 1975, §§3-7A-15; 22-2-2(6).

History: New Rule: Filed September 19, 1997, effective October 24, 1997; operative November 4, 1997.

420-4-4-.02 Definitions.

(1) "Animal" means any non-human mammal of the Kingdom Animalia.

(2) "Cat" means any live or dead member of the domesticated feline (Felis catus) family of any age or any cat-hybrid cross, in the exposure context.

(3) "Dog" means any live or dead member of the domesticated dog (Canis lupus familiaris) family of any age or any dog-hybrid cross, in the exposure context.

(4) "Domestic animal" means animals which, through association with humans, have been bred to a degree which has resulted in genetic changes affecting the temperament, color, conformation, or other attributes of the species to an extent that make them unique and distinguishable from wild individuals of their species.

(5) "Extra-label use of vaccine" means the use of an animal vaccine in a species that is not specified on the product label or product insert.

(6) "Hybrid-cross" means an animal resulting from the crossbreeding between two different species or types of animals. Crosses between wild animal species, such as lions and tigers, are considered to be wild animals. Crosses between wild animal species and domestic animals, such as dogs and wolves or buffalo and domestic cattle, are considered to be domestic animals.

(7) "NASPHV" means the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

(8) "Wildlife" means animals (which are either native or exotic) normally living in the wild, other than those defined as domestic, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fresh water fish.

Author: William B. Johnston, D.V.M.

Statutory Authority: Code of Ala. 1975, §§3-7A-1, et seq.; 22-2-2(6); Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Chapter I.

History: New Rule: Filed September 19, 1997, effective October 24, 1997; operative November 4, 1997.

420-4-4-.03 Nuisance Menacing Public Health. The Board decides that all unvaccinated dogs and cats of any age which have exposed human beings are declared a nuisance menacing public health.

Author: William B. Johnston, D.V.M.

Statutory Authority: Code of Ala. 1975, §§3-7A-1, et seq.; 22-10-2; Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Chapter I.

History: New Rule: Filed September 19, 1997, effective October 24, 1997; operative November 4, 1997.

420-4-4-.04 Reporting Of Exposures. The cornerstone of any successful rabies control program requires that exposures to humans by animals capable of transmitting the rabies virus be properly reported to local public health authorities.

(1) Who Must Report. Any health care professional who treats an animal bite or exposure, any veterinarian who has knowledge of an animal bite or exposure, and any law enforcement personnel, including animal control officials, who have been informed of or investigated an animal bite or exposure must report the incident.

(2) Who Should Report. Anyone having knowledge of an animal bite or other exposure to a human should report the incident to the county health officer or his authorized agent. Victims of an exposure need not be examined or treated by a physician before the report is made.

(3) Animals to Report. Bites or other exposures by any mammal to a human are to be reported to the county health officer or his authorized agent. Reporting requirements are not limited to exposures from domestic dogs and cats.

(4) When and How to Report. Because rabies is a uniformly fatal disease once symptoms develop, exposures to suspect animals must be reported to the county health officer or his authorized agent within 48 hours of knowledge of the bite. Reports may be given by written notice, telephone, or any reliable telecommunication system (e.g., facsimile, e-mail).

Author: William B. Johnston, D.V.M.

Statutory Authority: Code of Ala. 1975, §§3-7A, et seq.; 22-2-2(6).

History: New Rule: Filed September 19, 1997, effective October 24, 1997; operative November 4, 1997.

420-4-4-.05 Investigation of Reports. Prompt, thorough, and consistent investigations of all reported exposures by local authorities are necessary to protect the public health.

(1) Initiation of Investigation. When local public health authorities receive a report from health professionals, law enforcement personnel, or other credible public official concerning an animal exposure to a human, an investigation shall immediately be conducted.

(2) Investigation Report. Information of the investigation shall be recorded on Form ADPH-F-CEP-16/Rev. 9-96, "Rabies Exposure Investigation Report," or a comparable report form containing the same information. Reports shall remain on file in the county office for a minimum of three years.

Author: William B. Johnston, D.V.M.

Statutory Authority: Code of Alabama, 1975, §§3-7A-1, et seq.; 22-2-2(6).

History: New Rule: Filed September 19, 1997, effective October 24, 1997; operative November 4, 1997.

420-4-4-.06 Evidence Of Immunization. Evidence of proper immunization of domestic animals shall be provided by issuance of a certificate and a serially numbered tag.

(1) The information required by Code of Ala. 1975, §3-7A-2(a) shall be furnished on a printed certificate, dated and signed by the person authorized to administer the vaccine, and accompanied by a serially numbered tag bearing the same number and year as that of the certificate.

(2) The certificate form utilized may be ADPH-F-A-29/Rev. 10-80, as furnished in triplicate by the Alabama Department of Public Health; NASPHV Form #51, Rabies Vaccination Certificate, which can be obtained from vaccine manufacturers; or computer-generated forms containing the same information.

(3) Certificates and records of immunization shall be maintained by the issuing veterinarian and available for three years after date of issuance.

(4) The NASPHV standard tag system shall be used to aid local animal control and public health authorities in identifying the immunization status of animals. The rabies license tags shall follow NASPHV guidelines distinguishable in shape and color by year of issuance.

Author: William B. Johnston, D.V.M.

Statutory Authority: Code of Alabama, 1975, §§3-7A-1, et seq.; 22-2-2(6).

History: New Rule: Filed September 19, 1997, effective October 24, 1997; operative November 4, 1997.

420-4-4-.07 Extra-Label Use Of Animal Antirabies Vaccines. Failure to vaccinate popular exotic and hybrid animals susceptible to rabies raises the potential of creating a large pool of animals that could serve as reservoirs for rabies. Because the number of biologics licensed for use in some species continues to be limited, products licensed for use in similar species are frequently considered effective and reliable immunological data is deemed available to authorize vaccination under the following conditions:

(1) Both the United States Department of Agriculture policy and the Food and Drug Administration guide for pharmaceuticals shall be followed relative to the extra-label use of animal antirabies vaccines. Notations of extra-label use in domestic animals must also be entered on the patient's record.

(2) Animal antirabies vaccines licensed for use in other species may be used in domestic animals when there is a demonstrated need for the product, provided that there is evidence that some efficacy can be expected.

(3) Parenteral vaccination of captive native wildlife species shall not be allowed because the period of viral shedding, the clinical syndrome, and the efficacy of vaccines are not established.

(4) Zoos, research institutions, and exotic exhibitors licensed under the USDA Animal Welfare Act may establish rabies vaccination programs under the supervision of the Alabama Department of Public Health in an attempt to protect valuable animals. These programs should not be in lieu of appropriate quarantine and isolation measures that protect humans.

(5) Due to some uncertainties of the immunologic response to vaccination, the infective period of viral shedding, and the clinical course of disease in hybrid-cross animals, such animals involved in an unprovoked exposure to a human shall be considered for euthanasia on a case-by-case basis by the Alabama Department of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, depending on the species, the circumstances of the exposure, and the epidemiology of rabies in the area.

Author: William B. Johnston, D.V.M.

Statutory Authority: Code of Ala. 1975, §§3-7A-1, et seq.; 22-2-2(6); Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Chapter I.

History: New Rule: Filed September 19, 1997, effective October 24, 1997; operative November 4, 1997.

420-4-4-.08 Exceptions To Veterinary Confinement And Quarantine. Limited situations occur that may permit a quarantine period other than confinement for 10 days under the direct care, custody, control, and supervision of a licensed veterinarian.

(1) Assistance Animals. Guide, hearing, and service dogs and animals shall be exempt from the quarantine period where such exposure occurs in the line of duty and evidence of proper immunization against rabies is presented and the animal is examined at the end of 10 days by a licensed veterinarian. Extended observation periods or additional testing may be required on a case-by-case basis depending on the animal's species, health status, circumstances of the bite, and epidemiology of rabies in the area.

(2) Canine Corps Animals. Dogs and other animals working in the capacity of canine corps dogs, police enforcement animals, drug surveillance animals, and other like duties to protect and prevent against crime shall be exempt from the quarantine period where such exposure occurs in the line of duty and evidence of proper immunization against rabies is presented and the animal is examined at the end of 10 days by a licensed veterinarian. This exception shall also apply when the dog was acting as a sentry dog, where such animal's duty is to protect a defined area, such as a place of business, home, or property site where an illegal trespass took place with the intent to commit a crime or a crime was being committed. This exception shall also apply when the victim was illegally tormenting or assaulting the animal.

(3) Exposures to Residents of The Home. Home quarantine may be granted at the discretion of local public health officials or the state public health veterinarian if the following conditions are met:

(a) The exposure was provoked and was not an aggressive attack.

(b) The victim lives at the same home as the animal.

(c) The animal is currently vaccinated against rabies.

(d) The animal is examined by a veterinarian 10 days following the incident.

If the animal disappears, a physician must be notified to determine if post-exposure treatment is indicated. In rare instances, other good and valid medical/health reasons of the animal or owner may be considered for justification of home quarantine.

(4) Exposures at Veterinary Clinics. Home quarantine may be granted at the discretion of local public health officials and the state public health veterinarian if the following conditions are met:

(a) The animal and the person exposed are properly immunized against rabies.

(b) The exposure is the result of provocation by the veterinarian or staff assistant in attempting to restrain, examine, medicate, or otherwise treat the animal medically or surgically.

(c) The victim must agree with the home quarantine.

(d) The animal will be reexamined by a veterinarian 10 days following the exposure.

In cases where the animal has been immunized regularly for at least two years, and the assistant or veterinarian is NOT currently immunized, and the bite was the result of extreme provocation [e.g., manipulating a fractured bone], and the victim signs a release of liability for the local health department, a home quarantine may be considered. Should the animal exhibit neurologic signs, die, or disappear during the 10-day period, the veterinarian, physician, and health department will be notified. In rare instances, other good and valid health reasons of the owner or animal may be considered for justification of home quarantine (e.g., a bitch with young puppies, an animal with a contagious disease other than rabies, etc.).

Author: William B. Johnston, D.V.M.

Statutory Authority: Code of Ala. 1975, §§3-7A-1(10); 21-7-1, et seq.; 22-2-2(6).

History: New Rule: Filed September 19, 1997, effective October 24, 1997; operative November 4, 1997.

Note: Guide dogs ("seeing eye dogs") included in 1975 Code. Canine Corps dogs included in 1975 Code. Home quarantine for owners approved April 14, 1994, by administrative order.

420-4-4-.09 Adoption Of National Compendium. The Compendium of Animal Rabies Control, as published annually by the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) and the U.S. Public Health Service shall serve as the recommended procedure for animal rabies control in exposure situations not addressed by Alabama law or the Administrative Code of the Alabama State Board of Health. Control measures in variance with the Compendium may be enacted following consultation with recognized experts with the U.S. Public Health Service or NASPHV.

Author: William B. Johnston, D.V.M.

Statutory Authority: Code of Ala. 1975, §§3-7A-1, et seq.; 22-2-2(6).

History: New Rule: Filed September 19, 1997, effective October 24, 1997; operative November 4, 1997.

 

 

 

For information about RABVAX or this website contact info@rabvax.org